Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies

Tiziana Di Matteo, Volker Springel &  Lars Hernquist
Nature, 10 February 2005 Issue


This document provides supplementary information for the above letter to  Nature.  We provide technical information about our simulation method, and detail the equations solved for describing the physics of star formation, black hole accretion, and feedback processes. Where appropriate, we give  references to relevant literature for our simulation methodology

Supplementary Information: Methods (PDF, 43KB).


This computer animation visualises the full time evolution of a galaxy collision simulation of two spiral galaxies that host supermassive black holes at their centres. Only the gas distribution in the galaxies is shown. As in the figure, brightness represents gas density while the colour hue indicates gas temperature.

Medium quality (10 MB, 1024x768)

Highest quality (22 MB, 1024x768)

Attention:The movie has been compressed using DIVX. 
To play under Mac or Windows please install the
free divx-codec software
Under Linux the movie can be played using
"mplayer" or "xine"


Snapshots of the time evolution of a collision of two gas rich (80%) spiral galaxies with black holes at their center from a computer simulation. Color indicates temperature and brightness the gas density. After the merger and the formation of a large bulge, the remaining gas cools in the central regions and reassembles in a disk component. The black hole mass and the bulge velocity dispersion of this system are consistent with the MBH -σ relation.

Supplementary Figure (PDF, 80KB)